Permanent Magnet (PM) motors, which utilize magnets embedded into or attached to the rotor surface, offer several advantages. The magnets used in these motors are neodymium and iron-boron magnets, commonly known as Super-Magnets. These magnets possess a high magnetic field density per cm2, making them compact yet powerful. Their advantages include:

Size and Efficiency: PM motors with high magnetic field density can be designed to be one-third the size of a motor with similar performance. This compact size allows for efficient space utilization in applications such as electric vehicles (EVs). Additionally, PM motors exhibit high efficiency, minimizing electricity consumption during operation.

Durability: Super magnets have an estimated magnetic lifespan of approximately 400 years. Their long-lasting efficiency and reliability make them a dependable choice for various applications.

High Torque Density and Efficiency: EVs commonly utilize permanent magnet synchronous motors due to their high torque density and efficiency. These motors provide substantial torque output while consuming less energy, contributing to improved vehicle performance and range.

PM Motor Categories

PM motors can be categorized into two main types: Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) and Surface Permanent Magnet (SPM) motors.

IPM Motors: These motors have permanent magnets embedded within the rotor itself. IPM motors offer high-speed performance and near-constant power over a broad speed range. They provide greater control over the magnetization of the magnetic circuit, making them ideal for applications such as traction motors in vehicles.

SPM Motors: SPM motors feature magnets attached to the exterior surface of the rotor. While they dominated the market previously, IPM motors have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages in hybrid and electric vehicle applications. SPM motors have weaker mechanical strength and limited magnetic saliency, relying heavily on the magnetic torque component.

Why Choose IPM Motors over SPM Motors?

For high-speed applications like traction motors, IPM motors offer several benefits:

Efficiency: IPM motors consume up to 30% less power compared to conventional electric motors, resulting in energy savings.

High Torque and Speed: IPM motors generate high torque by utilizing both magnetic and reluctance torque components. They can operate efficiently over a wide speed range due to superior control over the magnetization of the magnetic circuit.

Mechanical Safety: Unlike SPM motors, the magnets in IPM motors are embedded within the rotor, ensuring improved mechanical safety as they won’t detach due to centrifugal force.

In conclusion, IPM motors provide compact size, high efficiency, durability, and superior performance, making them an excellent choice for high-speed applications such as traction motors in electric vehicles.